In vitro fertilization (IVF) is highly advanced procedure for infertility. Couples struggling to conceive naturally may opt for these treatments to achieve parenthood. IVF has proven effective over the time, and has helped countless people. IVF is also safe. It allows thousands of people to have their baby naturally. However, there can be certain risks or complications of IVF, which you will learn about in this blog. The following blog discusses some of the most common In Vitro Fertilization Complications and also sheds light on the role of a DNA Test in identifying the biological child after birth.
The Procedure of In Vitro Fertilization
As the name implies, an in–vitro is conducted outside the living organism’s body. In in-vitro fertilization, a woman’s healthy eggs and a man’s sperms are fertilized in the laboratory. The process consists of 5 steps as follows:
- Medication – Women receive hormone injections to stimulate healthy egg development. During an ovulatory period, women release one egg. With IVF, the goal is to produce 10 or 15 eggs.
- Harvesting eggs – The eggs are taken from the ovaries via a minor surgery and are collected trans-vaginally. A small needle guide is used to pass a needle over the transvaginal ultrasound to remove fluid from the follicles. On the same day, sperms are collected from the male partner.
- Fertilization – The egg and sperm are then fertilized in a lab through various fertilization technologies such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).
- Embryo Culture – Embryologists observe the embryo as it divides from two to more cells until the blastocyst stage (100-125 cells).
- Embryo Transfer – A small catheter is inserted through a woman’s cervix into the uterine cavity during an embryo transfer. Then, the embryo is transferred into the uterus. Ten days later, the woman returns for a blood test to determine whether she’s pregnant.
It’s only best for the couples to understand the process of IVF so that they can get an idea of various in vitro fertilization complications taking place at the centres and do their best to avoid them.
Complications of IVF Treatment
Sometimes things don’t go according to the plan, as IVF is an ‘assisted’ reproductive technology and there are a number of factors involved in the process. The following are certain complications of IVF:
- Medicational IVF Complications – Medications used for ovarian stimulation have mild side effects for some women, including bruising and mild pain at the injection site, headaches, stomach upset, and mood swings. Another side effect is an ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome (OHSS), which occurs when a large amount of fluid builds up in the abdominal cavity and lungs.
- Egg Retrieval – Mild to moderate abdominal and pelvic pain can be felt during or after the procedure. In rare cases, there may be injuries to organs near the ovaries like that to bladder, blood vessels, etc. Pelvic infection is also another risk.
- Embryo Transfer – A mild cramping or vaginal spotting (slight bleeding) may be experienced during this procedure.
- Miscarriage and Ectopic Pregnancy – The risk of miscarriage can be there, especially with increasing age of the mother. The rate of miscarriage may be low as 15% for women in their 20s to more than 50% for women in their 40s.
Ectopic pregnancy is one of the rarest complications of IVF. This is because the fertilized egg grows in the fallopian tube. However, this potentially dangerous medical emergency must be treated quickly with medical professionals to avoid complications.
Mishandling of Samples Causing IVF Baby Complications
The biggest worry in every IVF patient’s mind is the possibility of mixing up samples (the egg, sperm, and/or the embryo) with someone else’s. IVF centres stock thousands of samples which can lead to certain human errors like wrong labeling changed samples. These, in turn, can lead to various in vitro fertilization complications. The most common is the mother giving birth to a child who is not biologically related. However, in such a case, a DNA test can help the couples to confirm if the baby is biologically related to them or not.
Role of DNA Testing in IVF Cases
Accidental switching of samples, labeling, and handling errors, etc., are common in vitro fertilization complications taking place at IVF centres. If you have just had your baby with IVF or are expecting, a DNA Test can help accurately determine your child’s biological relationship with you. You can go for a Paternity, Maternity, or a Paternity Trio DNA test.
Go through the following links to know more about in-vitro fertilization complications, how to avoid them, and the role of a DNA test in the success of an IVF:
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